Joining an ecosystem entails transaction costs for any partner joining. The ecosystem leader must find ways to lower the entry costs and make it easy to join the ecosystem.
There are many ways to do so. One can start by not charging an entry fee. Improving the communication interfaces, and facilitate connections between the partners in the ecosystem are as important.
In the case of ARM, we describe how they invested in enhancing the compatibility of technical standards between chip designers and producers, and OEM’s like Apple and Samsung.